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if you have benefited from your experiences in life, take a quick look at our history of experiences and imagine how much it might benefit you! Experience is not always the best teacher - sometimes the experience of others is.

300 BC            Zeno of Citium establishes the Stoic School in Athens.

 

262 BC           Cleanthes succeeds Zeno as Scholarch of the Stoic School.

 

240 BC            Aratus, a Stoic acquaintance of Zeno, writes his famous poem Phaenomena. The line, “For we are indeed his offspring,” becomes the most famous expression of the Stoic doctrine of the universal brotherhood of mankind.

 

232 BC            Chrysippus succeeds Cleanthes as Scholarch.

 

206 BC            Zeno of Tarsus succeeds Chrysippus as Scholarch.

 

180 BC            Diogenes of Babylon succeeds Zeno of Tarsus as Scholarch.

 

152 BC            The Stoic Crates of Mallus constructs the earliest known globe of the Earth

 

150 BC            Antipater of Tarsus succeeds Diogenes of Babylon as Scholarch.

 

129 BC            Panaetius of Rhodes succeeds Antipater of Tarsus as Scholarch.

 

109 BC            Mnesarchus of Athens succeeds Panaetius of Rhodes as Scholarch.

 

88 BC              Posidionius of Rhodes succeeds Mnesarchus of Athens as Scholarch.

 

87 BC              Roman Dictator Sulla destroys the Stoic School in Athens. Posidonius barely escapes the School with the sacred Founding Documents.

 

51 BC              Antipater of Tyre succeeds Polisionius of Rhodes as the tenth Scholarch.

 

49-45 BC        The Great Roman Civil War. Julius Caesar overthrows the Roman Republic. The Stoic and patron of the Stoic School, Cato the Younger, is declared by the Stoic School Triumphant for completing his life without participating in tyranny. The Stoic School gives him the Cognomen “Cato Uticensis,” the Glory of “Hero,” and the Perpetuus of “Triumph.” This is still memorialized every April 12 with incense, reading of Phaedo, the rituals, and an Agape meal.

 

46 BC              Quintus Sextius succeeds Antipater of Tyre as the eleventh Scholarch. He emphasizes knowing well other philosophies and religions and understanding their similarities. This is particularly true in regard to Pythagoreanism. Sextius gave the Stoic School an example of Stoic Apathy under political tyranny. He gave the school the sacrament of Mediversity (post-meditation and pre-meditation of adversity at the close of a day).

 

10 BC              Sextius Niger succeeds Quintus Sextius as the twelfth Scholarch.

 

AD 45             Musonius Rufus assumes the office of Scholarch.

 

AD 50             Paul of Tarsus, a Stoic convert to Christianity, gives a lecture to the students of the Stoic School in Athens and Seneca the Younger is in attendance. Paul of Tarsus quotes from Phaenomena, by Stoic poet Arastus, to explain that Christians also believe in the universal brotherhood of man just as the Stoics always have.

 

AD 61             Theophilus assumes the fourteenth Scholarchate.

 

AD 65             Nero orders Seneca the Younger to commit suicide and orders the execution of Paul of Tarsus and Peter. The three die on June 27, a Sunday, which the Christians called the Lord's Day and Stoics called the Sun's day.

 

AD 87             Epictetus assumes the fifteenth Scholarchate.

 

AD 135           Hierocles assumes the sixteenth Scholarchate.

 

AD 154           Sextus of Chaerona assumes the seventeenth Scholarchate.

 

AD 180           The Stoic, Marcus Aurelius, dies. He is the last of five “Philosopher Kings.”

 

AD 264           The twenty-forth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 276           Zoroastrians destroy the Stoic School in the Sassinid Empire and end the religious debates between the Stoics, the Christians, and the Manichaeists. Mani is executed as are several Stoic ministers and Christian priests.

 

AD 311           In China, Empress Jia slaughters all 23 members of a Stoic community along with their Pontif Sextus Cicero.

 

AD 313           Lactantius writes De ira Dei (On the Anger of God), a religious discussion of Stoic apatheia.

 

AD 363           Julian the Apostate gives finances to perpetuate the Stoic School and allows marriage between Stoics and Christians.

 

AD 367           Julian the Apostate is killed fighting the Sassinid Empire. Christian zealots persecute the Stoic School with great efficiency.

 

AD 393           Emperor Theodosius bans pagan worship. The Scholarch takes the Sacred Founding Documents and moves the School north of Hadrian’s wall.

 

AD 432           The thirty-sixth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 446           The second Scholarch of Scotland is killed among Picts by forces of Vortigern.

 

AD 525           Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, convicts Stoic Pontiff Boethius of treason, imprisons him, and executes him.

 

AD 529           Christian Emperor Justinian I suppresses all non-Christin religions including the Stoic School. The Great Sowing begins.

 

AD 594           Shotoku converts Suiko to Buddhism. Buddhism adopts a modified version of Stoic theology on apatheia and becomes the state religion called upon to protect Japan.

 

AD 607           The forty-eighth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 625           Saint Isidore of Sevilla writes Etymologiae. Isidore espouses the Stoic School’s doctrines of jus natural, jus civile, and jus gentium to formulate Christian doctrines on the origin of political authority.

 

AD 629           The Byzantine-Arab Wars begin. Much of the Roman Empire is conquered by Muslim Arabs led by Khalid ibn al-Walid. Stoic ministers are slaughtered as infidels.

 

AD 640           Two Stoic pontiffs in China vigorously debate Alopen, exposing Nestorian Christianity as not providing a coherent world view. Stoic influence on Buddhism increases, especially its teaching on transcending desires.

 

AD 642           Muslim army leader Amr ibn al ‘Aas conqueors Alexandria. Caliph Omar gives the order to burn Stoic manuals in the Library of Alexandria saying, "If those books are in agreement with the Quran, we have no need of them; and if these are opposed to the Quran, destroy them."

 

AD 680           Chinese Emperor Gaozong introduces an unprecedented era of tolerance and support of the Stoic School as a mass movement that facilitates productive civic life.

 

AD 732           Near Poitiers, France, Christian Charles Martel defeats the Moors. The Battle of Tours halts the advance of Islam into Western Europe and establishes a balance of power between Western Europe, Islam and the Byzantine Empire, bringing a period of productivity and prosperity for Stoic projects throughout Europe and the Middle East.

 

AD 758           Arab and Persian forces raze Guangzhou. The Stoic School in China disappears.

 

AD 775           The sixtieth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 781           Nestorian Christians turn Stoic shrines into churches and seminaries.

 

AD 843           The Stoic faithful in Scotland increase after Kenneth, king of the Scots, is accepted as king of the Picts. The founding of the Kingdom of Scotland brings a period of growth and peace to the Stoic School north of Hadrian’s wall.

 

AD 869           Followers of the School often intermingle and sometimes intermarry with Vikings settling down in the Shetlands, the Hebrides, and the mainland of Scotland. Vikings do not consider the Stoic worldview and practices a threat. Stoic missionaries gain respect in Viking communities for being more practical socially than the Christian missionaries' eschatology and for their example of military courage and endurance under extreme pain without the aid of potions and matching the valor of berserkers while maintaining all rational faculties.

 

AD 950           Stoic faithful prosper under the Byzantine Revival. The Byzantine Empire benefits from an influx of Slavs and military victories against Muslim armies. Many Slavs convert to Stoicism because of its doctrine on the universal fraternity of humanity where nobody is slave or free, poor or rich, base or noble.

 

AD 998           The seventy-second Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 1054         The Great Schism between Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches causes disillusionment in some members of both faiths and leads many to consider Stoicism. In Rome, 1200 converts accept Stoicism in one month.

 

AD 1075         Pope Gregory VII publishes Dictatus papae starting the Investiture Controversy. Followers of the Stoic School are persecuted by the Latin Church as anti-Papal. Stoic ministers increase under the Greek church, which views the Stoic worldview on tyranny as compatible with Christian freedom independent from the Bishop of Rome.

 

AD 1159         John of Salisbury writes Policraticus, the first political science book of the Middle Ages. Stoic doctrines of providence and natural law lay the foundation for his Christian social philosophy. Policraticus uses the example of Julian the Apostate’s favor toward Stoic religion as the foundation for a Christian doctrine justifying tyrannicide.

 

AD 1239         The eighty-forth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 1265         Thomas Aquinas begins writing Summa Theologiae. He incorporates major Stoic teachings into Christian theology. Aquinas credits important Stoic primary sources as well as secondary sources such as Cicero.

 

AD 1350         The Black Death rages through Europe ending at least 29 Stoic communities.

 

AD 1410         A group of Augustinian clergy found the University of Saint Andrews. Comparisons of Stoic beliefs on the nature of the Divine, propositional logic, and natural law with Christian theology are considered fundamental to many of the lectures.

 

AD 1426         The ninety-sixth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 1431         The oracle Joan of Arc is executed on May 30 by burning at the stake. She is 19 years of age. The Stoic School gives her the Glory of “Hero” and the Triumph of "Virgin Martyr."

 

AD 1453         The fall of Constantinople drives Stoic communities in the East back to western Europe. Universities are populated with classical works and Stoic scholars, causing a rebirth in Western civilization. The Great Sowing transitions into the Long Harvest. At this time, there are only four Stoic communities that can trace their pedigrees back to Zeno of Citium. They are the one from Constantinople, the one from Rome, the Teutonic line, and the one from Scotland.

 

AD 1584         Justus Lipsius, the Flemish humanist writes De Constantia, arguing that many Stoic doctrines are harmonious with Christian revelation.

 

AD 1589         Justus Lipsius, the Flemish humanist writes Politicorum sive civilis doctrinae libri sex, presenting Stoic doctrines on human nature as harmonious with Christian revelation.

 

AD 1589         Guillaume du Vair writes De la constance et consolation es calamites publiques, applying the Stoic School’s doctrines on overcoming reversals in life to Christian theology.

 

AD 1604         Justus Lipsius, the Flemish humanist writes Manuductio ad Stoicorum Philosophiam and Physiologia Stoicorum, defending a wide range of Stoic doctrines as beneficial to scientific discovery and civil society.

 

AD 1664         Guillaume du Vair writes La Philosophie morale des Stoiques, advocating the moral ideas of the Stoic School.

 

AD 1717         The Covenantor Migration to North America begins. Over the next 50 years most of the Stoic community in Scotland emigrates to North America. Due to the Stoic opposition to slavery and their firm religious beliefs, England ostracizes them with economic, religious, and political persecution.

 

AD 1726         The one hundred eighth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 1740         The Scholarch transfers his school from Scotland to America.

 

AD 1748         Charles-Louis, baron de Montesquieu writes De l’esprit des lois, using Stoic ideas about civic society and social justice to support his pleading for a constitutional government, a separation of political powers, the ending of slavery, and the legal recognition of civil liberties. The Catholic Church bans the book.

 

AD 1865         Robert E. Lee, an admirer of the Stoic Emperor Marcus Aurelius, and Abraham Lincoln with his policy of “Malice toward none” promote Stoic doctrines as the way for America to heal after the Civil War, avoiding years of guerilla warfare and saving thousands of lives.

 

AD 1933         The one hundred twentieth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 1940         United States Senator William Alexander Percy writes Lanterns on the Levee, recalling his efforts to apply Meditations of Marcus Aurelius.

 

AD 1995         Vice Admiral James Stockdale relates his experiences applying Stoic training. He delivers the lecture The Stoic Warrior’s Triad: Tranquility, Fearlessness and Freedom at Quantico, Virginia. In the lecture, he tells The Marine Amphibious Warfare School about the influence of Stoicism on his life and career, including the way Stoicism was vital for his survival of seven and one-half years as a prisoner of war in Hanoi.

 

AD 2003         The one hundred twenty-forth Scholarch assumes office.

 

AD 2006         The New Encyclopedia of Southern Culture argues that Stoicism is “the social religion of this world.” The encyclopedia further explains that the Stoic School has been the dominate “civic religion” in America for generations.