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Virtue is Strength

If you had to define virtue in one word it would be “strength.” In English we use the same root word when we say virility. Virility means a special kind of power. So does virtue.

The Stoic School teaches that strength is a good thing. This is basic to human nature and Nature in general. Nature rewards the strongest in a species with survival and progeny. Nature is a place of struggle. The earth is a place where all animals must exert constant activity to live and must exercise great strength to get ahead. Those who lose their energy fall behind and perish. 

Human society also rewards athletes of great strength or speed. You don’t find yourself wishing you were weaker, do you? 

But, the Stoic School teaches about a strength more powerful than muscles.

First, think about an army. History shows that the most athletic soldiers do not always win. A smaller army with better strategy and equipment often defeats a larger force. Why? Second, a runner or boxer who has beaten a certain opponent previously might lose to him during the Olympics because the opponent trained harder and kept a stricter diet. Third, a weaker army can rout a greater one when the stronger flees the battle field.  Fourth, The ancient play The Suppliants by Euripides illustrates a special kind of power. In the play, the women have no physical power to retrieve the bodies of their dead loved ones who were killed in a battle, because the victors wanted them to rot in the open and be eaten by animals, so what mysterious strength empowered the mothers, wives, and daughters to win?

Our cultural grandparents called the first kind of strength “Wisdom,” the second “Temperance,” the third “Courage,” and the fourth “Justice.”

1) Wisdom is “being smart,” “thinking things through,” “making good decisions.” 

2) Temperance is self-control, self-discipline, and the ability to choose the difficult path that is good rather than the easy paths that are bad.

3) Courage means fortitude, bravery in the face of danger and pain, and risking personal safety, wealth, and reputation in the interest of something more noble.

4) Justice is doing the right thing, recognizing a higher morality than even human laws, and successfully harmonizing with Nature rather than only reading and talking about it.

The Stoic School teaches that the purpose of human life is Virtue. 

Even in human society, Nature requires constant energy to live, to be healthy, to be wise, to control yourself, to be brave, and to be fair to all.

An evidence that Nature intends mankind to be virtuous is that Nature gave humanity the potential for all these strengths. We know of no other creatures with the potential to develop the four Cardinal Virtues as we mean them here. Nature has attributes that can only be understood by those who practice wisdom, temperance, courage, and justice. We live in Nature more and more only as we grow in Virtue more and more. 

Another indication that Virtue is our purpose in life is that virtues bind us in stronger friendship with our fellow citizens, our friends, and our family. We are political animals. Nature provides no other species with a social structure anything like human society. There are no other species with commerce, technology, musical instruments, clothing, conversations, etc. anything like human society. But, along with our need to socialize in our uniquely human way, we see that virtue is what binds us together in the bonds of good faith necessary to produce thriving human societies. Individuals who practice Virtue are bound with their friends in stronger bonds of friendship and are praiseworthy among their countrymen. Those who practice vice suffer in their public and private relationships.

We call Wisdom, Temperance, Courage, and Justice the Cardinal Virtues. They remind us of the cardinal directions North, South, East, and West. With only four directions you can get from wherever you are to wherever you need to be in two-dimensional space.  In life, you need a different dimension of directions – virtues.

With the Cardinal Virtues, you can get from any circumstance you are in to where you need to be. The four virtues form a coordinate system that surely navigates you through your entire life, with “magnetic north” being the Good. Whatever crisis or reversal befalls you, the way to maintain happiness and to get where you need to be is always a combination of these four virtues.

The mother of all the virtues is Gratitude. All virtues are a combination of Wisdom, Temperance, Courage, and Justice, and those Cardinal Virtues come from Gratitude. Wisdom, Temperance, Courage, and Justice are the natural response to gratitude for what Nature has done for us, what our friends have done for us, and what our country has done for us.

What is the Essence of Western Civilization? (6 of 6)

- by Kelly Kinkade

If you really know yourself, you know you have access to unlimited strength deep inside yourself. This is Virtue. There are only four Cardinal Virtues. The best thing to do in any situation is just the interaction of four fundamental virtues.

1) Wisdom

Wisdom is Right Reason.

It is strength, because it is like a woodcutter in the fall who needs firewood. If he uses a sharp ax, he will get more work done than if he uses a dull ax.  The man has the same bodily strength whether he uses a sharp ax or not, but if he taps into the forces of nature by sharpening his ax, the laws of nature itself (such as the vectors resulting from the sine and cosine of the angle of the ax's edge) work with him and give him more firewood.

This is wisdom’s power. Wisdom marshals the forces of Nature to work for you.

2) Justice

Justice is fairness; it is harmony with the natural rights of others. Justice is a uniquely human strength in two dramatic ways.

First, every praiseworthy pursuit in your life will require the assistance of others; and you’ll get more work done when you treat those “others’ fairly; it is human nature.

Second, if you hinder the natural rights of others, you are fighting against the forces of Nature on two fronts, because you are fighting your purpose in life, and you’re fighting the other person’s purpose in life.

3) Temperance

Temperance has the notoriety of being the least popular of the four Cardinal Virtues in America today. Temperance is the control of desires and passions.

We see drug and sexual addictions that people do not control, even though it ruins their lives and harms their relationships with their kith and kin. We see the so-called Walmartians whose decorum makes them painful to look at, yet they cannot keep themselves from going out in public. We see unhealthy gluttony, which is lack of self-control. Today, we see an epidemic of intemperance in the West. All of this is weakness.

The strength temperance gives you is the power to control a person - you. That is the only person you can control, but most people do not exercise their ability to control themselves. Temperance is the Cardinal Virtue that keeps humanity's animal instincts within the limits of what is praiseworthy.

4) Fortitude

Fortitude is endurance in the face of physical and psychological pain. It is the ability to deal with fear, opposition, or chaos successfully.

Wisdom, justice, and temperance are the virtues through which you decide what needs to be done; fortitude gives you the strength to finish the job.

Fortitude is the Cardinal Virtue that strengthens your resolve to resist temptations and to overcome obstacles in realizing your purpose in life.


These are the four Cardinal virtues. They are Nature’s GPS for your life. With only four Cardinal directions - north, south east and west – you can find 1) your position on this globe, 2) the position of the destination you need to go to, and 3) the best way to get there.

In a similar way, by wisdom, justice, temperance, and fortitude you will find 1) where you are in life, 2) where you need to get to in life, and 3) the best way to get there.

But, I have one more thing to tell you, and it’s going to hurt. Fortitude is particularly important today, because you are going to run into haters who want to destroy your virtue.

This column will have articles in the near future that will show you how to identify haters, why they hate your virtue, how you can overcome the haters with the very virtue they hate, and the limitations of using logic to try to persuade them.

The Stoic School has always taught that most people are not persuaded by logic alone; everyone is ultimately persuaded by Right Reason, of which logic is only a small part. In fact, Nature made us persuadable by an intriguing interplay of ethos, pathos, and logos. 

This six-part series is complete and is sufficient to identify the essence of Western civilization.

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